What is Avalanche (AVAX)?

March 28, 2023
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Avalanche is a multi-chain framework for building decentralized applications and networks that has rapidly gained popularity and recognition since its official launch in 2020. This project is focused on resolving blockchain's low performance, scaling, and flexibility issues.

Structure of Avalanche

Avalanche is designed as a grid of blockchain networks consisting of many independent blockchain networks operating collectively as one. Each of the sub-networks can have its own unique properties and functionalities.

The Avalanche platform structure starts with the Primary Network, a special Subnet containing a collection of Avalanche validators collaborating to reach consensus. Each blockchain is validated by one Subnet, but a Subnet may have multiple blockchains.

All validators are required to validate and secure three blockchains: the Exchange Chain (X-Chain), the Platform Chain (P-Chain), and the Contract Chain (C-Chain).

Exchange Chain (X-Chain)

X-Chain manages operations on digital smart assets called Avalanche Native Tokens. A smart asset is a representation of a real-world resource (such as a stock) with rules that govern its behavior.

X-Chain's API supports creating and trading Avalanche Native tokens, and one of the assets traded on X-Chain is AVAX. Exchange Chain is an instance of Avalanche Virtual Machine (AVM).

Platform Chain (P-Chain)

P-Chain is responsible for all validator and subnetwork operations. Its API supports the creation of new blockchains and subnetworks, adding validators to subnetworks, and staking operations. P-Chain is an instance of Platform Virtual Machine.

Contract Chain (C-Chain)

C-Chain is an instance of Coreth’s Virtual Machine and is the default smart contract blockchain on Avalanche. It enables the creation of any Ethereum-compatible smart contracts. The Contract Chain implements the Snowman consensus protocol.

DAG technology

For a better understanding of the nature and mechanism of DAG, we recommend reading a separate article on this subject.

In summary, Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) serves as an alternative to conventional blockchain technology, wherein each block can connect to multiple preceding blocks, rather than being limited to just one.

DAG is utilized in Avalanche, enabling numerous transactions to be processed simultaneously and efficiently. Such technology is frequently used in systems that require high performance and many transactions to be processed simultaneously.


AVAX is the native cryptocurrency of the Avalanche platform. AVAX is a utility token, meaning that its value is primarily tied to its use within the Avalanche ecosystem.

Among its several use cases within the ecosystem are the following:

  • Transaction fees – AVAX is used to pay for transaction fees on the Avalanche network.
  • Staking – AVAX is also used for staking on the Avalanche network. Stakers are rewarded with more AVAX as an incentive for their participation.
  • Governance – AVAX holders can participate in the governance of the network by attending votings and deciding the future direction of the platform.
  • dApp development – developers can use AVAX to pay for resources and services on the Avalanche network when building decentralized applications (dApps).
  • Cross-chain interoperability – AVAX can be used to facilitate cross-chain interoperability between different blockchain networks, enabling the transfer of assets and data between different platforms.

Application of Avalanche

The Avalanche platform has many applications, including:

  1. Tokenization of assets: With the platform, you can create and issue your tokens, enabling the tokenization of assets of various types (such as real estate, cars, and art). For example, Ava Labs.
  2. Decentralized Finance (DeFi): By building and running financial applications on the Avalanche platform, such as smart contracts and lending protocols. For example, Curve Finance.
  3. Supply chain management: Transparent and reliable tracking of products and raw materials through production.
  4. Games and blockchain applications: For example, Guild of Guardians.

Advantages of Avalanche

  • High transaction throughput: Avalanche can process thousands of transactions per second.
  • Low transaction fees: Avalanche's consensus mechanism allows for low transaction fees, making it more accessible to users and businesses.
  • Interoperability: Avalanche supports interoperability between different blockchain networks, enabling the seamless transfer of assets and data.
  • Smart contract functionality: Avalanche supports smart contracts, allowing developers to build decentralized applications (dApps) on the platform.

Disadvantages of Avalanche

  • Centralization concerns: Some critics argue that the network is too centralized due to the small number of nodes that participate in the consensus mechanism.
  • Lack of mainstream adoption: Avalanche is relatively unpopular compared to more established blockchain platforms like Ethereum.


Avalanche is a multi-chain framework that enables the establishment of customizable subnets with different rules and governing principles while cooperating with one another and the main Avalanche network. Its primary network is a special subnet containing a collection of Avalanche validators collaborating to reach consensus.

Avalanche uses Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) technology to process numerous transactions simultaneously, making it quick and efficient. The platform's advantages include high transaction throughput, low transaction fees, interoperability, and smart contract functionality, while its disadvantages are concerns about centralization and a lack of mainstream adoption.

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